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この研究成果の引用には次のURIを利用してください。: http://hdl.handle.net/10285/323

種類: Departmental Bulletin Paper
タイトル: 諸外国の変動する看護システムに関する研究
タイトル別表記: A Study of Nursing Systems in Transition in Developed Countries.
著者: 小島, 操子
堀内, 成子
太田, 喜久子
及川, 郁子
香春, 知永
野村, 美香
豊増, 佳子
鳩野, 洋子
菅田, 勝也
田中, 祐二
キーワード: 看護システム
nursing system
registered nursws (RNs)
licensed practical nurses (LPNs)
nursing education
掲載誌: 聖路加看護大学紀要
号: 23
開始ページ: 49
終了ページ: 68
発行年月日: 1997年3月1日
ISSN: 02892863
抄録:  本研究は、諸外国の看護システムについて調査し、わが国の現状との比較分析を行うことにより、看護の質の向上のための看護職員のあり方について検討することを目的に行った。特に諸外国の看護システムおよび准看護婦(士)に類似する看護職の実状を明らかにすることに焦点を当てて研究を進めた。 調査対象は、わが国の今後に示唆を得られると思われる国として、アメリカ、カナダ、オーストラリア、フランス、スウェーデン、イギリスの6ヵ国を選んだ。看護推進における先駆的な活動および今後の方向性を得るため、WHOコラボレーションセンターおよび看護専門職能団体を中心に、各機関の長、29名に質問紙調査を依頼した。質問紙は19通回収され、回収率は65.5%、有効回答は15通であった。さらに、医療現場における実態を詳細に把握する目的で、アメリカの看護管理および教育の専門家3名に、面接調査を実施した。その結果、以下の知見を得た。 1.准看護婦を有していた国は、7か国中6か国(フランス以外)であり、准看護婦の養成を停止していたのは1か国(イギリス)であった。 2.人口1, 000人当りの看護婦数は、7か国中、わが国が最低であった。わが国の准看護婦と看護婦とを合わせても、イギリスの看護婦数には届かなかった。准看護婦と看護婦の比率が近似していたのは、日本であり、他の国においては、准看護婦数が看護婦数の1/3~1/4であった。 3.准看護婦のいる5か国においては、准看護婦と看護婦の能力規定あるいは業務範囲が明確に認められたが、わが国においては不明瞭であった。 4.准看護婦の養成に必要な教育期間は11~14年であり、日本は最短の11年であった。入学資格が学校教育9年であったのは、日本のみであり、他は高等学校卒業レベルであった。 5.准看護婦から看護婦への移行プログラムは、4か国で、大学相当レベルの高等教育に位置づけられていた。 6.准看護婦の養成を停止したイギリスでは、看護婦を高いレベルに統一することができたが、同時に看護補助者養成の必要性が明らかになった。 現代のように、医療が高度化・専門家し、地域におけるケアニーズが急増している現状では、それに対応した看護を行える人材の養成として、わが国の現行の准看護婦養成では不十分である。今後、准看護婦の養成を停止し、看護教育の一元化に向けて早急な検討が必要である。
抄録別表記: The present study was designed to investigate nursing systems in other countries in comparison with the current system in Japan, and thereby assess how nursing personnel should be in order to improve the quality of nursing.The study focused on the actual situation of the nursing system and licensed practical nurses(LPNs)or second-level nurses similar to LPNs in other countries. The survey was conducted in regard to six countries considered to be advanced in the development of nursing activities and likely to provide usueful suggestions for the future direction of nursing in Japan:Australia, Canada, France, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.Questionnaires were sent to the heads or staff of a total of 29 organizations, including WHO Collaborating Centers and professional organizations for nursing, in these countries.Nineteen organizations responded(response rate:65.5%), and an effective response with completed questionnaire forms was obtained from 15 organizations.In addition, an interview survey was conducted on three nursing administration and education experts in the United States in order to acquire clear understanding of the actal state of nursing in health care practice.The results were as follows:1.Six countries(Japan included)excluding France had LPNs.Educational preparation for LPNs has been discontinued in the United Kingdom.2.The number of nurses per 1, 000population was lowest in Japan:the total number of registered nurses(RNs)and LPNs in Japan was less than the number of RNs in the United Kingdom.Only in Japan the proportions of LPNs and RNs were similar, while in other countries of number of LPNs was one-third to one-fourth of the number of RNs.3.In the five other countries having LPNs, the nurse's competency or scope of practice was clearly defined for both LPNs and RNs.In contrast, no clear line was drawn betweenthe two in Japan.4.The length of education required for LPNs ranged from 11 to 14 years(including the period of compulsory education)and was shortest in Japan(11years).The educational requirement for admission to LPN school in Japan was 9 years of compulsory education(graduation from junior high school), whereas in othter countries it was at the level of senior high school graduation.5.Four countries had conversion programs for LPNs to become RNs, and the conversion courses were positioned within the framework of higher education comparable to the university level.6.In the United Kingdom, where the educational preparation for LPNs has been discontinued, nurses are included in a single higher level profession.At the same tome there was found to be a need to train and educate auxiliary personnel in order to maintain multi-level care service. Because of the increasing tendency toward advanced medical technology and highly specialized medical care associated with the rapidly increasing care needs in the community, the current educational preparation for LPNs in Japan is unsatisfactory as a training and educational system for nursing manpower to cope with the current situation.The above findings suggest that the education system for LPNs be reviewed with a view to discontinuing it and consolidating nursing education in Japan.
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リンクURL: http://hdl.handle.net/10285/323


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